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Results from one of the Dysautonomia International conference studies! This study resulted in several important findings.

-Norepineprhine, which is elevated in some people with POTS, can remain in stored frozen serum samples, even without antioxidants or preservatives.

-Norepinephrine can interfere with the blood tests used to screen for adrenergic antibodies in POTS.

-Pre-treatment serum with MAO enzyme before running the antibody tests removes norepinephrine from the serum.

-After removing norepinephrine from the serum, POTS patients show evidence of elevated alpha1 αdrenergic receptor antibodies and beta1 adrenergic receptor antibodies compared to the general population.

-People with POTS report a much higher rate of family members having autoimmune diseases compared to the general population.

This research was supported by Dysautonomia International’s POTS Research Fund. You can help us fund even more important POTS research by making a contribution at

Read the full journal article here: Cell Disorder Support

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SCIENCE! (or you want a zombie invasion? cause this is how you get zombie invasion)

Chemists find fungal shrapnel in the air

January 20, 2020 , University of California, Irvine

The tiny fragments of fungal cells could contribute to asthma, allergic reactions and ice cloud formation.

In a discovery that has implications for our understanding of the air we breathe, UCI chemists report that they’ve found nanoscale fragments of fungal cells in the atmosphere. The pieces are extremely small, measuring about 30 nanometers in diameter, and much more abundant than previously thought, the researchers say in a study published this week in Science Advances.

“These fragments are most likely bits of fungal spores that have burst after swelling with water,” said lead author Michael Lawler, assistant project specialist in the Ultrafine Aerosol Laboratory headed by co-author James Smith, UCI professor of chemistry. “It was unexpected to identify them as fungal fragments. The appearance of large numbers of atmospheric nanoparticles is usually ascribed to reactions of gases in the atmosphere, growing up from molecules rather than breaking down from larger particles.”

He said these lofted bits of fungus are easier to inhale deep into the lungs than intact cells, which can be thousands of nanometers in diameter. This means they may contribute to fungus-related allergic reactions and asthma among susceptible people.

The study also explored how these tiny crumbs of biological matter might aid in the creation of ice clouds, as some such cells have been found to facilitate ice formation in the sky.

“Large, intact biological cells are extremely rare in the atmosphere, but we’ve identified fungal nanoparticles in orders-of-magnitude higher concentrations, so if some or all of these are good ice nuclei, they could play a role in ice cloud formation,” Lawler said.

To make these observations, the researchers drew air into an inlet that size-selected ambient particles to take in only those measuring 20 to 60 nanometers in diameter

Atmospheric fungal nanoparticle bursts

Michael J. Lawler*,

"Fungal spores are known to be associated with adverse respiratory impacts, particularly asthma, and these fungal health impacts are understood to be related to rainy or humid conditions (46–49).

Ruptured airborne pollen is recognized as a likely source of respirable allergens (50), and recent work has shown that fungal spores can also rupture and thereby become more easily respired (9, 51, 52).

Because of the facility with which aerosol nanoparticles can reach deep into the lungs and even across membranes into the bloodstream (11), it seems likely that fungal aerosol nanoparticles could be a significant but underappreciated contributing factor to the negative health impacts of fungal spores.

The identification of a roughly 30-nm mode of fungal aerosol supports the idea that some atmospheric nanoparticle formation events involve mainly primary materials, rather than forming from condensation of low-volatility gases or reactive uptake. Whether there are other instances of similar processes with different starting materials remains to be seen.

In the case of terrestrial fungal nanoparticles, the large numbers of sub–50-nm particles generated in these events are likely a large, but episodic, source of IN (ice nuclei) in diverse environmental settings from the Amazon to North American agricultural fields. Similarly, they may be a major source of health-impacting respirable allergens.

In both areas, these small particles may have greater impacts than the intact fungal spores, which up to now have been more readily measured and characterized."

(Note; Relative to total airborne particles, the particle size having 50% penetration for the thoracic and respirable fractions are 10 ÎĽm and 4.0 ÎĽm, 500X size of typical exploded pollen or fungal particles which are much easier to respirate. Cell Disorder Support

The ManyFacesofMastCellDisorders—A House of Mirrors? David B.K. Golden, MD Baltimore, Md

"Normal mast cells are complex enough. We see deeper into their mystery every year as we probe their receptor-mediated interactions, their intracellular signaling pathways, and a multitude of their products that mediate a wide range of allergic and other conditions.1

But abnormal mast cells are even more insidious. Patients with mast cell disorders generally present either with anaphylaxis or with less severe and less specific symptoms that often lead to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis.

Mast cell disorders have become an increasing focus of our clinical practice due, in part, to the growing popularity of mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) as an internet diagnosis for whatever ails you.

In the past, a practicing allergist might have safely assumed that they would never see a case of mastocytosis in their career. Now, one must be able to separate the wheat from the chaff.

Mast cell disorders can be even more challenging to rule out than to confirm and our ultimate diagnostic test, bone marrow biopsy, is often difficult for patients to accept. So what is an allergist-immunologist to do?"

"In this issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, we can see how complex the issues surrounding mast cell disorders have become and, despite the remarkable advances of the past decade, we recognize how much more work there is to be done.

For example, there are many other active mediators released by mast cells, but in most cases we do not fully understand their role in these conditions, there are no routinely available laboratory tests for them, and we do not have blockers for them that would permit us to confirm the diagnosis in, and more effectively treat patients with MCAS.

Also, we do not yet know whether, and to what extent, the risk of anaphylaxis is increased in patients with alpha-tryptasemia, and in other patients with modestly elevated tryptase levels but no evidence of mast cell disease.

Prospective evaluation and monitoring of patients with suspected MCAS must be conducted and reported to understand the heterogeneity and natural history of the disease, and the most appropriate use of possible therapeutics.

And finally, there is a need for improved treatment options with greater efficacy and/or safety for the prevention of anaphylaxis and other manifestations of these conditions. This will require controlled trials in well-defined patient populations to enable regulatory approval of this new indication for new or existing treatments.

“A house of mirrors, a traditional attraction at amusement parks, is a maze-like puzzle with mirrors as obstacles, and glass panes to parts of the maze they cannot yet get to” (Wikipedia). The analogy of mast cell disorders with a “house of mirrors” is quite apt.

It seems everywhere we look we see mast cell disorders, things that look like mast cell disorders, and reflections of mast cell disorders, but not all of them are what they seem and we see things we cannot yet explain. There is a path through the mirrors, and it is with well-designed research studies." Cell Disorder Support

:musical_score: I got a fever and the only prescription is more cowbell! :notes: Cell Disorder Support

“The EU bans more than 1,300 harmful chemicals from cosmetics. .The U.S. bans only 11.”

A look at what you’re putting on your face:Mast Cell Disorder Support

Check out Pam’s book on Amazon or Lulu

My Crazy Life with Mast Cell Disorder

An old one but still funny!! :smiley: Cell Disorder Support

Remember for PGD2 F2 keep that sample chilled.

2 to 3 year old pens were found to be 90 percent effective.

May the Force Be With You: The Light and Dark Sides of the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis in Neuropsychiatry

Picture has Nothing at all to do with Mast Cells, just cute AF.

However, it is rumored, that midichlorians can help keep Mast cells from degranulating.

Choccy milk may help with those anaphylactic like force throat chokes.

If getting IM in ambulance or ER make sure they are giving 1:1000 (1mg=ml) 0.2 to 0.5mL dose-weight dependent.

NOT the 1:10000 dilution for cardiac IV push.


How Effective Are Manufacturer Recommendations for Cleaning Duodenoscopes?
Douglas G. Adler, MD, FACG, AGAF, FASGE reviewing Mark J et al. Gastrointest Endosc 2020 Jan 13

In one center, 18% of endoscopes were culture-positive after initial cleaning and high-level disinfection.

Debate continues regarding the optimal method for duodenoscope decontamination to prevent duodenoscope-related infections. In a recent study, researchers evaluated the adequacy of sterilization resulting from their center’s implementation of high-level disinfection recommendations from a leading duodenoscope manufacturer.

One hundred and forty duodenoscope cycles of cleaning, culturing, and quarantining were examined. After high-level disinfection, each duodenoscope was cultured (two specimens taken) and quarantined pending culture results. If either of the first set of culture specimens tested positive, the duodenoscope was cleaned, recultured, and quarantined again. This process was repeated in a third cycle.

Of 234 initial culture specimens, 28 (12%) were positive (translating to 18% of the 117 duodenoscopes tested having at least 1 positive culture specimen). In the second cycle, of 36 culture specimens, 5 (14%) were positive, and in the third cycle, of 8 specimens, 2 (25%) were positive. Of all cultured organisms, 97% were gram-positive; 85% represented oral and skin flora. One culture was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No patients had infections related to duodenoscopes.


The results of this study can be read two ways. On the one hand, the number of endoscopes with positive cultures following the manufacturer’s cleaning recommendations is higher than one might expect. This could be due to lax adherence to protocols, contamination during cleaning or culturing, or other reasons. On the other hand, only one culture had a concerning result, and no patients were sickened as a result of a contaminated duodenoscope. Overall, duodenoscope-related infections remain rare but are a serious problem. Adherence to manufacturer’s guidelines is vital, but other solutions (e.g., gas sterilization, disposable endoscopes) may be needed to reduce infection rates

A belter here tae get the weekend started :smile: #BurnsNight #HappyBirthdayRabbieBurns

Totally awesome! Bravo Zulu!

Objective discussion on Wuhan Corona Virus background.:biohazard::biohazard::biohazard:


:bangbang:!WARNING ROUGH LANGUAGE! :bangbang:

:bangbang:FBOMBS Ahead​:no_entry::exclamation: